Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Has Asian American Studies Failed?

Episode 1: The New York Times publishes a review of the learning center at Heart Mountain, one of the sites of the internment of Japanese Americans during WWII. Halfway through, the piece takes a hard turn toward historical revisionism. Internment was "more the rule than the exception" and was applied to other ethnic groups too. Japan was a "racist, militant society" and many Japanese Americans were "strategically devoted to the mother country." And "the Japanese were known for similar espionage elsewhere."

These are precisely the kinds of arguments that were made in 1941 to justify the internment, so it's rather shocking to hear them repeated in 2011. Moreover, they're precisely the lines of reasoning that have been thoroughly debunked by Asian American historians. Only Japanese Americans, and not German or Italian Americans, were subjected to mass internment based solely on ancestry. The FBI, far from seeing Japanese Americans as dangerous, found no evidence of espionage or disloyalty in the population. (Don't take my word for it; just glance at Ronald Takaki or Sucheng Chan, or any standard history of Asian Americans.)

A week later, the NYT printed two letters responding to the article, both from Japanese Americans. Although both eloquently rebutted the review's falsehoods, the Times' choice of letters suggests a merely personal response from Japanese Americans, leaving aside the larger question: How could a reporter writing for the New York Times in 2011 be so utterly ignorant of the basic facts of Asian American history?

Episode 2: The Wall Street Journal publishes an article by a Chinese American Yale law professor called "Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior." The article sings the praises of a harsh "Chinese" mode of parenting, including ridicule, shaming, and relentless perfectionism, and proclaims it superior to permissive "Western" parenting. A firestorm of controversy ensues, with the author of the article denounced as a monster and an abuser, and the term "tiger mother" enters the language as shorthand for extreme Asian parenting.

You can read my own take on the "tiger mother" controversy elsewhere, but for the moment the point I want to make is this: The debate that went on in the media was almost entirely between the "tiger mother" herself and her white critics. Although almost every Asian American I knew had an opinion, and many of them shared them publicly, their voices went practically unheard. Perhaps most baffling was that the author herself, American-born and Ivy League-educated, seemed utterly ignorant of the idea that such as thing as Asian American identity existed. Her argument was based entirely on the idea that she (and her mixed-race daughters) were purely "Chinese" and not American. She seemed not at all aware that the struggles with cultural identity, assimilation, and resistance that underpinned her parenting struggles were exactly what we talk about when we talk about "being Asian American."

---

Two depictions of Asian Americans in the pages of two of our country's leading newspapers. In both cases, what's misleading in the pieces could easily have been avoided if the authors had ever taken Asian American Studies 101. Or if even the most basic elements of Asian American studies had filtered out into mainstream American consciousness. But they haven't.

Which is why I ask: Has Asian American studies failed?

The question may seem a bit perverse. By many measures, Asian American studies has enjoyed notable success within the academy over the past several decades. The field boasts its own professional organization, the Association for Asian American Studies, with its own journal and annual conference. Over 30 colleges and universities across the country now have Asian American Studies programs, and many more schools now offer coursework in the field. Asian Americanist graduate students and faculty can be found across the social sciences and humanities, and the wealth of books and articles in the field continues to grow. It's a vibrant field of intellectual inquiry.

Yet despite all these successes, it would seem that Asian American studies has a long way to go in reshaping the larger public discourse on Asians in America. We can't expect every college graduate to have taken a course in Asian American studies. But would it be so much to ask that some of the basic insights of the field--its rewriting of the historical record on Japanese American internment, its assertion that Asian Americans are not simply foreigners or aliens, but have an experience and history of their own--be more common knowledge? Why don't we see Asian American scholars being quoted in the media or publishing books that reach a wide audience?

Perhaps what I'm describing is simply part of the perceived (and perhaps growing) divide between academic and popular writing. Certain people I know have written quite extensively about the history of this divide, and it's not surprising that as Asian American studies has matured as an academic discipline, scholarship in the field has become more specialized. The question is: how, if at all, is that scholarship reaching readers outside the field?

The job of popularizing the insights of Asian American studies, when it's been undertaken, has generally fallen to journalists. The work of Helen Zia is exemplary in this regard; her Asian American Dreams is one of the few works of popular nonfiction that I can think of that attempts to cover some of the same ground that work in Asian American studies does. More recently, bloggers like Jeff Yang and angry asian man have served as a rapid-response team for Asian American media images.

What we don't see, though, is any kind of direct conduit for the lessons of Asian American studies, as taught and practiced in the academy, to reach a wider audience. The two examples I've cited above, and innumerable others, suggest to me that such a channel is needed--that we need to find new ways for what we do in Asian American studies to have an impact in the wider public sphere.

How might we do that? A few ideas:
  1. Popularize. Asian American studies is interesting. It talks about hot-button issues like race, gender, sexuality, the media. It's politically engaged and upends conventional thought about America and American history. We ought to be finding ways, from journalism to popular nonfiction writing, to communicate the discoveries of our field to a wider public. (Note that I do not mean that our scholarly work needs to be conducted in "popular" language--that's another debate--but rather that we can and should translate some of that work for popular audiences.)
  2. Look outward. Asian American studies has its origins in activism and in service to the Asian American community. We might say it has historically looked inward, toward the Asian American community, because that is its natural audience. Is it also now time for us to look outward, toward "mainstream" audiences? Not to tell those audiences what they want to hear, or to abandon our history of Asian American activism, but to look at what is lacking in public discourse about Asian Americans and try to fill that gap. 
  3. Advocacy. When a controversy blows up in the media about Asian Americans, quick response is needed--and academics are rarely positioned to respond quickly. We can't depend on the media to call up a professor of Asian American studies when comment is needed on anti-Asian racism or a misrepresentation of history. Can we form our own "rapid response teams" of Asian Americanists who can jump on a controversial issue quickly and intervene in public discussion? (In some fields, activist professional organizations have taken on this role; it might be worth asking whether AAAS, or some subgroup within it, could be more aggressive in speaking out on public issues.)
  4. Public intellectuals? Asian American studies has not, for better or worse, produced professors who can also command attention in popular media--think Henry Louis Gates, Jr. or Cornel West in African American studies. I'm not saying we need to go out and create Asian American academic celebrities, but might there be something to be said for Asian Americanists thinking of themselves more as public intellectuals, who have something to contribute to public discourse on the widest level?
These are admittedly half-formed ideas. I'm looking to start a conversation here about the role of Asian American studies in the public sphere, and to try to close the gap between the successes of Asian American studies within the academy and the continued ignorance of those successes outside of it. 

152 comments:

skim666 said...

Here here!!!!!! Excellent piece!!! right on the money!!

skim666 said...

I really think the media -- the various forms of it, from popular television news channels to progressive publications like The Nation and The Guardian -- is key. But also as an academic, I'm not even sure how to go about tapping into these venues, and I'm pretty sure I'm not the right person (ESP for TV, which is just scary). But maybe this is something we can pursue institutionally, like with AAAS, etc., drawing on the experience and expertise of our allies who DO have this kind of experience? I really don't know the how, but I totally agree about the need to DO something. There really is a HUGE divide btw what we know in AAS and what is said in public discourse.

Timothy Yu said...

I'm kind of digging the idea of a crack AAAS response team that rushes to the site of any crap said about Asians and starts slapping people with copies of the Journal of Asian American Studies.

Seriously, though. There are a lot of younger Asian Americanists who blog, for example. If we had them all on one big group blog or something, that could be a start.

Sarah said...

This is a fantastic piece. Thank you so much for writing this. I'm interested in continuing this conversation, as I have been working hard to insert Asian American Studies into the children's lit scholarly and publishing world so as to encourage more accurate representations of the Asian diaspora in youth literature. I echo skim: we need to DO something.

- Sarah Park (PhD and MS in Library & Info Science, MA and BA in Asian American Studies)

Ramey Ko said...

Perhaps AAAS should endeavor to play a central role in the annual AAPI bloggers conference, Banana. I'm also surprised that there isn't more of a presence at activist conferences such as ECAASU, especially geared towards collaboration.

I'm very obviously personally biased on this front, but I also think more AAS programs could use folks with activist and organizing backgrounds more effectively as adjuncts. I'm an AAPI political activist, and by teaching adjunct in AAS at UT, I try to make engagement, awareness, and activism a part of my lessons. We also have adjuncts teaching classes on campus organizing, AAPI political movements, etc. from a more hands-on perspective.

I'd also add that such efforts would be very helpful for programs facing serious budget cuts; it's hard to get outside support for your work when others don't really know or understand it.

abenamer said...

To add fuel to the fire, listen to this podcast at http://www.wtfpod.com/podcast/episodes/episode_238_-_russell_peters

How can AsAm Studies contribute to this dialogue?

Sarah said...

We need more Ramey Kos and Glemm Omatsus on every campus. I don't think this topic is unrelated to the ongoing conversations at AAAS regarding how to support AAS faculty in our pursuit of tenure, etc. We should be advocating and commenting on issues affecting our communities, but it's hard to do when other obligations loom. Perhaps this is a conversation the Association could take up in DC: "Asian America: Intellectual and Popular Crisis?"

Providence said...

Yep, in every direction.

I think the As-Am-Stud "is interesting" tenet needs to be contemplated by suckers like me, who frequently teach and sometimes write about (or publish) As-Am artists but don't approach these in a disciplinary way (or from the specific investments of Asian-American-ism per se). As though these investments were made in the interest of anything other than what we are already talking about.

Timothy Yu said...

Ramey, I think you're right on the money that there is room for a lot more collaboration among Asian American academics, bloggers, writers, activists. Folks like yourself, who participate in all of these worlds, can be a great bridge and resource.

Is AAAS itself the best venue for these kinds of crossovers? AAAS is a professional, academic organization that is primarily concerned (as it should be) about advancing the interests of our field within the academy. But perhaps there's room within it for a more public face--something like an activist or public affairs caucus? A blog on the AAAS website? Some kind of presence at the conferences Ramey mentions?

Sarah: agreed that this is all taking place within the context of the professional demands made on Asian Americanist academics. We do need to find ways to make sure that younger Asian Americanists are getting the kind of support that will allow them to be active on all professional and political fronts.

bigWOWO said...

Tim,

Thanks so the post. Your post got me (and several others) thinking. I blogged about your post here (and you can see a conversation under it, even though it's Christmas weekend):

http://www.bigwowo.com/2011/12/the-purpose-of-asian-american-studies/

My impression has always been that AAS is there to educate and study, NOT to create leaders for the next generation. Without leaders, there is no one to spread any kind of message to the general masses.(People only learn what they pay money in school to learn.)

That's not to say that people ought not to change the focus of AAS at the grad level. Perhaps AAS grad schools should be creating leaders.

If so, the logical questions to ask are:

a) What should AAS grad students be studying while in grad school?
b) What does the ideal AAS masters graduate look like, say, ten years after graduation?

James said...

Has AAS failed? Good question.

But the question needs some further clarification: what did it fail to do?

I think when it was first established in 1969 and the 1970's, it was successful because it brought to light AA issues of racial discrimination and it created a generation of AA activists.

But I guess the point you're getting at is that AAS has failed to make knowledge of AA issues and history commonplace.

You would think that most Americans today would denounce the internment of the Japanese American community or have some knowledge of Chinese Americans working on the railroads. You would think that most people know not to use the words Oriental, chink or Jap to refer to AA's.

But guess what? You got Michelle Malkin saying the internment was justified. You got the media perpetuating yellowface stereotypes. You've got Asian Americans and non-Asians who have no idea about Angel Island, Vincent Chin or Wen Ho Lee.

So yes: AAS failed miserably to inculcate AA history and respect into the American consciousness.

As someone who went through an AAS undergrad minor and an Ethnic Studies grad program, it was a bit a shock for me to realize that very few people in the world thought like me or had the same level of understanding of AA history and issues. I could understand non-Asians who have this ignorance of AA issues. I could understand FOB's who are ignorant of AA issues.

But most ABC's don't have a full understanding of AA history and issues. They may or may not have an understanding that there is an inequity between respect for Asians and non-Asians. But they can't articulate the solutions to such problems, because they don't have the AAS background to fully articulate the problems themselves. AAS provides a lexicon and a historical and mental perspective in which to deal with racism and to articulate a response.

Part of the problem that I see is that people who are in AAS don't know how to disseminate AA history and AA stories outside of academia. The info only circulates within the AAS community. You have to popularize the info somehow, and that means you have to know how to market such info. The Internet is very useful in this regard, but it does take some PR skills. There is a reason why the Tiger Mom meme is no stuck within the American lexicon. Her PR people knew how to promote it.

FromNorCaltoMidwest said...

This only addresses some of your suggestions:

1) does the Assoc of Asian Am Studies have a media specialist to go to for expert opinions or a public relations specialist? More and more disciplines are hiring PR people, and larger associations, like the American Sociological Association, have them (example: Dan Fowler at ASA in DC).

2) I did see more junior scholars blogging and writing about the Tiger mom-ization of parenting practices at the tail end of the controversy and AAAS did form a panel addressing this internal debate.

As a former editor turned grad student, I did see a lot of efforts among ethnic journalists to write alternative stories or op eds, but their pieces still did, for the most part, appear in community and ethnic media (not necessarily in Asian Am media, a major distinction in the marketing of Asian Am identity at the level of cultural production).

I'm mostly thinking aloud and probably making some gross generalizations, but I really appreciated you revamping this discussion in an accessible way!

David said...

one possibility would be to form coalitions with like-minded allies such as the asian american journalists association and to have a presence at the unity conference for journalists and journalism students of color.

DJ Chuang said...

Good thoughts here, glad you're voicing it. For a population that is 5% of the American population and still growing in percentage, there's proportionally less visibility in mainstream culture and in leadership positions. For a population that has the highest median family income, where is that money going in terms of community impact or strategic philanthropy?

I don't think an ethnic studies is the place where change is initiated, though it can provide history and insights that can be helpful to inform other disciplines and societal change. Leadership development is rarely done in the university setting aka academy anyways.

So, yes, we need more cultural engagement and cultural participation, and that is stepping into more leadership roles, to voice more in the blogosphere, and I'd add, develop our own media channels - both to be engaging with mainstream culture as well as to show how much more we have in common as Asian Americans rather than too often focusing on differences.

Mary said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Mary said...

Great article and I appreciate the thoughtful discussion on how AAAS can better serve our community. I invite you to join the AAAS FB https://www.facebook.com/groups/aaaspage/
and I will be glad to add you. Perhaps we can think of how we can better situate ourselves. As the incoming president of AAAS I strongly support the idea of activism and engagement as key missions. I would love for AAAS to be the nexus of all things AAS and a place where folks can turn. I will look into the two conferences that Ramey Ko mentioned. Thanks. I look forward to continuing the discussion with you all.

-

ac said...

My answer to your headline question: It's too early to know, because for all its successes in various isolated pockets of academia, AAS is still essentially a nascent field. From the vantage point of an established AAS program, you might wonder why your scholarship is not more culturally impactful. But North Carolina is a blue state, one of the nation's 10 most populous, and there's a pretty good chance that not one K-12 teacher in the entire state has ever taken a single AAS course. There isn't much chance of AAS insights seeping into the popular consciousness in my home state.

The project of launching new AAS programs at major universities stopped short more than 10 years ago, and now, unfortunately, the window for expanding ethnic studies is pretty much closed. Asian American undergraduates won't agitate for it, liberal arts departments won't pay for it, and legislatures and courts (like Arizona's) won't allow it.

ac said...

P.S. Indiana did start their AAS program in 2008, but IIRC, their movement began in the late 1990s. Have there been any more recent launches?

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